Linux desktops from: http://www.robotwisdom.com/linux/desktops.html [Up: tech] [Robot Wisdom home page] Linux desktops (GUIs, widgets, window managers, etc) Jorn Barger November 2002 "It is an unworthy design objective to aim for anything less than trying to do to the Macintosh what the Macintosh did to the previous state-of-the-art." --Bill Buxton  I'm trying to understand Linux desktops in terms of the big picture of networked graphics, including Apple's Mac Toolbox, PostScript, OpenGL, etc. The story starts with Englebart's 1968 mouse, moves to Xerox PARC (1972 Smalltalk and Alto, 1981 Star), then to Apple (1983 Lisa, 1984 Mac), then to MIT where Project Athena (1983) sought to combine Unix networking with the Mac-popularised bitmapped graphics, giving birth to X (1984). PostScript debuted in 1985, SGML in 1986, HyperCard in 1987, Tcl in 1988 (Tk in 1991), and Motif and HTML in 1990. Linux could already run X by 1992, and XFree86 and Qt were launched that year. Around this time (in a parallel universe) John Carmack was rewiring the priorities of videocard designers (accelerated 3D). KDE was begun in 1996, and GNOME in 1997. But in many ways, the Linux desktop still lags the Mac c1984, I fear... (Eighteen years is unacceptable!) The 'original sin' of X was to treat local programs as if they're running remotely over Ethernet, and to treat the local display as if it's a lowest-common-denominator instance of the generic bitmapped workstation. So your smart fast hi-res personal computer becomes a slow dumb lo-res graphics terminal. Today, a Linux box with an x86 chip, accelerated graphics, and a CD/DVD-burner, hooked to the Net via a 56k modem, has become the default platform that software innovators can commit to... -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- desktop environments: DMoz, Slashdot thread window managers: DMoz, how-to-change, flames miscellanea: metaphors, Debian-list X overview course links Xfree86 how-to KDE Gnome WindowMaker LindowsOS Eazel GNUStep Be, QNX/Photon, MGR, GEOS, NeWS, and CLIM. SVGAlib twm (simplistic and ugly) enlightenment fvwm, amiwm, icewm, windowmaker, afterstep, sawfish, kwm -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- timeline 1925: Doug Englebart born in Oregon 1938: Ivan Sutherland born in Nebraska [bio] 1940: Alan Kay born in Springfield, Mass [bio] 1940: John Warnock born 1944: Jef Raskin born [cv] 1945: Vannevar Bush's "As We May Think" 1st knowledge interface design (inspires 20yo Englebart) 1948: first CRT (popular by 1960s) 1951: Bill Atkinson born 1953? Andy Hertzfeld born 1954? Bill Budge born [bio] 1956: James Gosling born in Calgary, Canada [bio] no-date: CRTs generate vector-graphics using 'display list' of primitive objects (points, lines, curves) [info] (the distinction between bitmaps and display-lists persists today in the Paint/Draw dichotomy, too) pre-1964? pseudo-teletype (pty) anticipates 'line-oriented' window-manager [info] (in 4.1BSD by 1981) 1960? 1st video character-generator, for air-traffic control [cite] 1960: SpaceWar played on oscilloscope [cite] [history] 1960: Will Wright born [bio] 1961: development of Simula begun [history] [timeline] 1962: Oct: Doug Engelbart's "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework" [etext] [history] 1963: Ivan Sutherland's Sketchpad 1st object-oriented graphics editor [info] [ideas] [constraints?] "It was not just a tool to draw things. It was a program that obeyed laws that you wanted to be held true." --Alan Kay [cite] "It allowed users to define and draw new shapes by specifying and applying constraints to standard shapes chosen from a pallette. This system included point constraints, linkage constraints, and angular constraints and solved these constraints through an interactive relaxation technique. A user viewed an animated sequence of the constraint solution as it forced the object to transform to a desired shape." [cite] 1963: TVEDIT by Brian Tolliver? 1964: Feb: Simula's 'process' concept emerges after multiple stacks added to Algol [cite] will be renamed 'object' 1964: Ken Knowlton at Bell does 1st computer animation [cite] 1964? OPSER (operator service) program for TOPS-10 [man] uses ptys to allow multiple jobs active from one terminal (instead of needing one timesharing-terminal per job) 1964-1966: John McCarthy's Zeus for PDP-1 runs TVEDIT on 8 Philco CRTs 1966: Simula is 1st object-oriented programming language 1966: "By 1966, everyone knew where the silicon was going." --Alan Kay [cite] 1967: Ned Irons' Rand screen-editor for CDC 6600 1967: May: Simula-67 renames activities and processes as classes and objects [cite] [intro] 1967: Jef Raskin's thesis "A Hardware-Independent Computer Drawing System Using List-Structured Modeling: The Quick-Draw Graphics System" [info] 1967: Nicholas Negroponte starts Architecture Machine Group (ArchMac) at MIT (morphs into Media Lab by 1985) [info] to create tools for collaboration between designer and computer no-date: Alan Kay reads Sketchpad-thesis and Simula-docs while getting PhD at Utah under Evans [cite] [history] "I suddenly realized that Simula was a programming language to do what Sketchpad did. I had never really understood what Sketchpad was. I get shivers now thinking of it. It rotated my point of view through a different dimension and nothing has been the same since. I suddenly understood the purpose of higher level languages." no-date: Alan Kay at SAIL (Stanford) 1968: DEC's TYPESET-8 typesetting system [pic] 1968: Evans and Sutherland founded [history] 1968: Apr: JCR Licklider and Robert Taylor's "The Computer as a Communication Device" [history] 1968: 09Dec: Doug Englebart demos "Augment/NLS" hypertext-editing sys (w/tiled windows?) [RealVid] [history] Alan Kay is present no-date: "In Augment two windows can show two aspects of the same object. A change to an object via either window may be seen thru both windows." [cite] 1969: Alan Kay and Edward Cheadle design Flex system [cite] windows (non-overlapping?), tablet for input 1970: Xerox (under CEO Peter McColough) founds Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) to develop office of the future, under George Pake and Robert Taylor [history] 50 top thinkers hired 1970: Alan Kay joins Xerox 1971? John Carmack born 1971: Ned Irons' Yale screen-editor for PDP-10 1972: 01Feb: Ivan Sutherland receives patent for windowing by clipping [cite] 1972-1978: John Warnock works on flight simulators at Evans and Sutherland [cite] 1972: Xerox launches Alto project [info] 1972: Oct: Alan Kay's Smalltalk-72, for Dynabook project at Xerox [info] written in Basic, 1000 lines, ported to assembly in December 1972: 07Dec: Rolling Stone article on Kay and PARC by Stewart Brand [etext] 1973: Alan Kay's Learning Research Group includes Dan Ingalls, Diana Merry, Ted Kaehler, Adele Goldberg, Larry Tesler, and Chris Jeffers 1973: Don Lancaster describes "TV Typewriter" for hobbyists 1973: Muriel Cooper and Ron MacNeil found Visual Language Workshop at MIT [info] 1973: Raskin discusses wp-theory at Xerox [cite] 1973-1975: Bravo wordprocessor at Xerox by Butler Lampson, Charles Simonyi et al [info] 1974: Smalltalk ported to 64k Alto, windowing added 1974? DEC's TYPESET-10 and TYPESET-11 w/video display editing and powerful macro abilities, letterspacing, kerning, etc. [info] 1974: autumn: Dan Ingalls writes BitBlit rectangle-shifter for Alto 1975: David Canfield Smith's Pygmalion programming environment [info] 1975: John Gaffney working under John Warnock at Evans and Sutherland creates 'E&S Design System' (Forth-like language for 3D databases, leads to PostScript) [info] [more] Gaffney learned stack-oriented programming on Burroughs at U of Illinois Smalltalk-76 screenshot Smalltalk's 'Virtual Image' is portable toolkit of classes for data structures, graphics and text handling, compiler, decompiler, debugger, viewing and user interface support ('Virtual Machine' is machine-dependent os-kernel) [cite] 1976: Smalltalk-76 adds inheritance, click-n-drag popup menus [paper] [Horn] 1976? TOPS-20 adds pseudo-teletypes [cite] 1976: Stallman writes first Emacs in TECO (screen-oriented?) 1976-1980: 20 Xerox-Parc researchers use Smalltalk-76 daily 1977: Bill Joy writes vi (screen-oriented) 1977? Borning's ThingLab (Smalltalk simulation app) [docs] 1977: Englebart and Augment move from SRI to Tymshare [cite] 1977? Bob Sproull and William Newman at Xerox create device-independent page-image description scheme for dot-matrix printers called 'Press format' [cite] (leads to PostScript) 1978: Jan: Jef Raskin joins Apple, later recruits Bill Atkinson and Bud Trible [cite] 1978: John Warnock moves to Xerox, collaborates with Martin Newell on JaM (based on E&S Design System) [info] [more] JaM ported to Alto and other Xerox workstations 1978? Apple launches $50M Lisa project [history] [Tesler] 1978: 02Oct: IBM applies for patent on 'partitioned screen' [info] (granted 1981) 1979: Mar: Jef Raskin proposes Mac to Mike Markkula [cite] [more] 1979: John Couch heads Apple's Personal Office Systems division 1979: Sep: Markkula greenlights Mac [cite] [doc] 1979: Dec: Larry Tesler at Xerox PARC demos Smalltalk for Apple (at Raskin's instigation: cite) inspiring windows & mouse for Lisa&Mac 1980: Smalltalk-80 uses model-view-controller architecture [theory] 1980: Alan Kay leaves Xerox 1980: Chuck Geschke forms Imaging Sciences Lab at Xerox [cite] 1980: Steve Jobs adopts Jef Raskin's Macintosh project [hist] 1980: Jul: Tesler moves from Xerox to Apple, manages 20-person Applications Software Group, defines basic Lisa uif with Bill Atkinson 1980: autumn: 68000 starts shipping in quantity [Byte Jan81] 1980: Andreas 'Andy' Bechtolsheim starts licensing Sun board for $10k [cite] 1980: Oct: 4.0BSD includes Ken Arnold's 'curses' library [bio] (also Elan Amir? source) [man] [debate] [links] immediately inspires 'rogue' game [history] (widely misreported as rogue preceeding curses!?) Xerox Star [pic source] "incredibly slow and somewhat clumsy" --Jef Raskin, Bruce Horn [cite] 1981: Apr: Xerox debuts the Star 8010, with mouse, icons, and windows [pic] 1981: Bruce Horn moves from Xerox to Apple [cite] 1981: Simonyi and Brodie move from Xerox to Microsoft [Brodie] 1981: Bill Budge at Apple builds 8-bit object-oriented pinball 'Raster Blaster' [cite] 1981: John Henry Thompson [site] at MIT's Visible Language Workshop [site] (w/Muriel Cooper) and Architecture Machine Group (ArchMac), uses Mac-like Unix-like workstation? [pic?] [cite] [more] [art] PERQ 1981? Xerox-spinoff Perq (offers Unix w/window manager) [info] [more] [more] 1981: Dec: BRown University WINdow manager "BRUWIN: An adaptable design strategy for window manager/virtual terminal systems" by Norman Meyrowitz and Margaret Moser [info] "Windows can be transferred thru the mail as a capability." [cite] 1981: Gnosis design-document [multi] "There are applications that require direct access to the pixel buffer or at least the performance equivalent thereof. How is this to be reconciled with protected windows? By "protected windows" I mean that one application shall be unable to clobber another or another's buffer by virtue of access to its own buffer. This is not easily reconciled with current hardware where the pixel buffers are in contiguous real memory." 1981-1982? Brian Reid and Paul Asente start W window-package to replace V's [hist] 1982: Jan: Vinod Khosla recruits Bechtolsheim for Sun [cite] 1982: Bob Sproull, Butler Lampson, and John Warnock at Xerox merge 'Press format' with 'JaM' to make Interpress (Xerox's version of PostScript) [cite] 1982: Rob Jacob's wm window-manager [net.unix-wizards] and Mark Weiser's wsh (Maryland Window Shell) [net.unix-wizards] [more] "WM manages a collection of windows on a text display terminal. Each window has its own shell, running in parallel with those in the other windows. This permits a user to conduct several interactions in parallel, each in its own window. The user can move from one window to another, re-position a window, or create or delete a window at any time without losing his or her place in any of the windows. Windows can overlap or completely obscure one another; obscured windows can be "lifted" up and placed on top of the other windows." [cite] 1982: Jul: Mark Horton demos revamped 'curses' [info] supports new terminal-features [tech] 1982: Aug? MIT's NUnix Window System by Jack Test [Google] VisiOn 1982: autumn: VisiCorp demos VisiOn at Comdex [cite] (Bill Gates is alarmed) 1982: Dec: Adobe founded by 42yo John Warnock and 43yo Chuck Geschke to create workstation for publishing [info] [profile] [more] Apple Lisa (LisaDraw was very slow) 1983: Jan: Apple Lisa introduced [tour] [v3 tour] [links] menubar, clipboard, trashcan, dragging, doubleclicking, 'revert', 'paste', regions? Bill Atkinson's LisaDraw is 130k of P-code, reduced to 11k QuickDraw for Mac [cite] 'Desktop Libraries' were 100 shared software modules [cite] offered to developers as Lisa Toolkit [source] [source?] 1st widget set? classes: TAbilities, TAlertArg, TAlertCounter, TAliasArray, TAlignment, TArea, TArray, TAuthorArray, TBand, TBodyPad, TBranchArea, TByte, TClassArray, TClassInfo, TClassWorld, TClickState, TClipboard, TCmdNumber, TCmdPhase, TCommand, TCursorNumber, TCutCopyCommand, TDialogBox, TDiResponse, TDocDirectory, TDocManager, TEnumAbilities, TEnumIcons, TFam, TFilePath, TFileScanner, TFont, THashCompare, THeading, THeap, TIdxArray, TImage, TList, TMarginPad, TMenuBar, TMethodArray, TMousePhase, TObject, TOctet, TPad, TPageAlignment, TPageView, TPaginatedView, TPAliasArray, TPane, TPanel, TPassword, TPasteCommand, TPAuthorArray, TPByte, TPClassArray, TPIdxArray, TPInt, TPLint, TPMethodArray, TPOctet, LPoint, TPrelude, TPreviewMode, TPrinterMetrics, TPrintmanager, TProcess, TPrReserve, TPSliceTable, TPSTableArray, TPUnitArray, TPWords, LRect, TResizability, TRevelation, TSBoxID, TScaler, TScrollBar, TScroller, TSelection, TSideBand, TSliceTable, TSTableArray, TTypeStyle, TUnitArray, TUnitsFromEdge, TView, TWindow, TWindowID, TWmgrCmd 1983: Apr: Microsoft's faked 'Interface Manager' demo (renamed Windows) [cite] 1983: MIT launches Project Athena (networked workstations) to replace Multics [history] [cite] [info] 1983: 4.2BSD supports pseudo-teletypes 1983? Will Wright's 1st game, Raid on Bungling Bay [cite] 1983: Bill Budge's Pinball Construction Set for Apple II, 1st object-oriented 8-bit? [interview] [more] 1983: SunWindows kernel-based wm [cite] 1983: Bjarne Stroustrup's C++ (for implementing distributed systems: cite) offers threads instead of true simulation [cite] [history] "The concurrency required for separate threads in one address space, for different processes in a computer, for distributed computing across a local area network, and for distributed computing over a wide area network, differ. There are different kinds of constraints on the work, depending on whether you're doing a high reliability-- such as financial or life-critical-- transaction, or some Web stuff that is allowed to fail. My feeling is that nobody has come up with a set of concurrency primitives that serves all the major application areas well." [cite] 1983: summer: Paul Asente ports W to 4.2BSD using slow interprocess communication [cite] 1983: Oct: VisiCorp's VisiOn for pc [tour] 1983: 10Nov: offical announcement of MS Windows [cite] 1983: 20Nov: Borland Turbo Pascal 1.0 offers 'TurboVision' (1990? below) text-windowing IDE [info] [impact] original Windows design used Multiplan/Word-style menu at bottom 1983: Dec: Byte magazine article on MS Windows [multi] 1984: Jan: Apple intros Macintosh (design team: Andy Hertzfeld, Chris Espinosa, Joanna Hoffman, George Crowe, Bill Atkinson, and Jerry Manock: more) [origins] 64k ROM includes Hertzfeld's gui 'Mac Toolbox' API, w/QuickDraw, Text Edit, Device Manager, Window Manager, Menu Manager, Font Manager, Resource Manager, Event Manager, Control Manager, Dialog Manager, Desk Manager [tech] [credits] windows, menus, scrollbars, icons, scrapbook, desk accessories? Bruce Horn designed 46k Finder, 3k Resource Manager, Dialog Manager [cite] 1984: Jan: System V.2's 'job control' resembles wm [thread] 'shl' allows 7 layered ptys [cite] differences between jc and wm [post] 1984: 29Feb: IBM applies for patent on 'distributed menu' system [info] 1984: 15Mar: 1st PostScript manual shipped [cite] [theory] [links] 1984: 25Apr: Xerox abruptly decides to release Interpress specs [cite] 1984: Apr: David Cheriton's "The V kernel: A software base for distributed systems" [cite] [info] [more] [most] includes VGTS display server? [cite] 1984: Paul Asente's "W Reference Manual" at Stanford (also Brian Reid and Chris Kent) [cite] "W provides graphics windows based on a simple display-list mechanism" W, derived from V, will inspire X 1984? Asente sends W tape to MIT [cite] 1984: Jun: Robert Scheifler extends W and calls it X (v1) [GooJa] [ditto] [crit] 1984: Jun: survey of wm's includes Nunix, WINDX (Peter Collins), BRUWIN [net.works] 1984: Open Unix Club becomes 'X/Open' to avoid wrath of AT&T [cite] (name from open-standards, not open source, and just uniX, not X-windows) 1984: SunView uif toolkit [cite] 1984: Gosling joins Sun, starts NeWS? (Network Extensible Windowing System) 1984: MacroMind founded in Chicago by Marc Canter with programmer Jay Fenton and Mark Pierce (will become Macromedia) [history] SoundVision (for Mac) is 1st animation-tool [more] 1984: Nov: Fenton separates VideoWorks player from authoring-tool [cite] 1984: late: X has reached v6 no-date: Bill Budge gives up idea of 'Construction Set Construction Set' [cite] c1985: John Thompson clones QuickDraw for 8086 TelePaint [cite] 1985: Jan: MS's Mac expert moved to 2-years-late Windows [cite] 1985: Jan: ANSI standard for window management undertaken [annc] 1985: 18Jan: Rob Jacobs announces rewrite of wm [net.unix-wizards] uses curses and ptys 1985: early: IBM's TopView for pc [pic] 1985: Apr: Andrew window manager from CMU [info] later adds portable graphics layer [thread] 1985: Apr: AT&T 7300 has 'wmgr' window-manager [cite] 1985: CMU's 'SPICE' project creates Sapphire window manager [cite] 1985: Quarterdeck's DesQ for pc [pic] 1985: DRI's GEM for pc [pic] 1985: Jun: earliest incarnation of Director is called VideoWorks [history] 1985: $7k Apple Laserwriter is 1st PostScript printer [info] Warnock predicts Adobe will peak at 50 employees [cite] 1985: Jul: comparison of wms [post] 1985: Aug: Matt Lennon and Tom Truscott's 'wm' source posted [mod.sources] 1985: Sep: George Nelan's 'wms' for 4.2BSD posted [net.sources] 1985: Sep: X v9 distributed as free [cite] cf Andrew [Gettys] 1985: X/Open Portability Guide [cite] 1985: Oct: Amiga 1.0 [info] 1985: 20Nov: Windows 1.0 ships [tour] 1985: Dec: Clayton Elwell's Portable User Interface Library project [GooJa] 1985: Dec: X v10r2 [annc] "X is a portable network transparent window system for bitmap displays. Applications can be run from any machine in a local area network via stream connections (currently TCP and Unix domain are supported). X is a fully hierarchic window system intended to be very flexible. Manipulation of existing windows is done with an external window manager; if you don't like ours, write your own. Applications include a terminal emulator (~VT102 and Tek 4010), load monitor, clock, imagen previewer, and several window managers among other things." no-date: Windows 2.0 clones Mac interface; withdrawn and tweaked to avoid lawsuit? [cite] 1986: Jan: DEC announces VAXstation with X 1986: Feb: X v10r3 [annc] 1986? early window-managers include xnwm, uwm, xwm 1986: Jun: 4.3BSD includes 'window' wm [cite] 1986: X v10r4 1986: Bob Lewis's Galadriel display-list-based window-manager [paper] 1986: highschooler Jonathan Gay (with Mark Stephen Pierce) writes bestsellinggame 'Dark Castle' for Mac (will go on to create Flash) [history] 1986? Raskin's Swyft interface [2002-docs] 1986: 10Jul: Nigel Holder's 'grotwin' text-window-manager [source] 1986: Aug: Adobe IPO 1986: Oct: Sun introduces NeWS [cite] 1986: Nov: X v10r4 no-date: MS licenses NeWS? [claim] no-date: toolkits for NeWS include 'Lite' and 'GoodNeWS/HyperNeWS' [cite] no-date: uwm = universal window manager [source] 1987: 01Feb: comp.windows.x newsgroup [early posts] 1987: Feb: list of wms mentions xnwm, uwm, xwm, Viewpoint, XDE, Bridge, Interlisp, PNX-WMS, Flex, Oriel, and Rob Pike's wm [mod.computers.workstations] 1987: Mar: Oliver Laumann's 'screen' text-window-manager [info] 1987: Apr: comp.windows.NeWS newsgroup] NeWS vs X [flamewar] "X is like vi while NeWS is like EMACS" or 'X is a jeep and NeWS is a DeLorean' 1987: Mac II uses Color QuickDraw 1987: Jef Raskin's Canon Cat [passim] 1987? Star Trek: The Next Generation will (eventually) do some animated graphics using Macromedia Director [info] 1987: Jun: debate about multiple screens vs windows for Unix [thread] 1987: Jul: comparison of curses and 'smg' screen-management routines [thread] 1987: summer: Macromedia creates 2nd-ever Mac CD-ROM with VideoWorks animations [cite] no-date: Macromedia's VideoWorks Interactive uses Tiny Basic scripting, never formally released [cite] 1987: Aug: HyperCard 1987: Sep: X v11r1 (incompatible with v10) designed in haste by MIT and DEC [crit] 1987: Sep: 27yo John Henry Thompson moves from Lucasfilms Droidworks (digital editing system) to Macromedia (will add Lingo to Director) [history] [resume] [interview] starts with VideoWorks Accelerator 1988: 04Jan: twm = tiny window manager [annc] 1988: Jan: X Consortium formed 1988: Jan: MIT X Windows Conference [report] 1988: 20Jan: twm = Tom LaStrange's wm [annc] [GooJa profile] [info] [Hopkins] twm [pic source] 1988: Feb: random windows-flame [thread] 1988: Mar: X v11r2 1988: May: Open Look gui [overview] 1988: John Ousterhout designs Tcl (Tool Command Language) at Berkeley [hist] begins Tk [GooJa] 1988: NeXT chooses Mach kernel no-date: Director 1.0 is not interactive? [cite] 1988: MacroMind's VideoWorks Interactive becomes Director 1.0; John Thompson and Erik Neumann add Lingo control language [history] or 2.0? [cite] object-oriented, originally written in Pascal, inspired by Smalltalk, Lisp, Objective C, and HyperCard [more] "any variable can hold any value and Lingo can programmatically inspect and evaluate it" 1988: DECwindows [tour] [GooJa] 1988: Sep: early PR from Adobe about Display Postscript [post] 1988: Oct: X v11r3 1988: 17Oct: comp.sys.next newsgroup Byte first-look [etext] "Embedded inside the Window Server is the Display PostScript interpreter, which acts on the PostScript commands passed to it... several libraries of ready-to-use objects, called kits... around 34 objects... known as the Application Toolkit... Interface Builder..." 1989: CDE (Xi Graphics' Common Desktop Environment) started by Open Group: IBM, SUN, HP, Novell, DIGITAL 1989: 27Mar: Mike Smedley's CXL (C eXtended Library) 5.0 windowing library does menus, forms, string manipulation [readme] [source] [GooJa] 1989: OpenWindows with XView (based on SunView), Open Look Window Manager (Olwm), and X11/NeWS [cite] no-date: NeWS Development Environment (NDE) beomes The NeWS Toolkit (TNT) [cite] 1989? (not 1979!): Marc Porat at Apple starts Pocket Crystal project [cite] 1990: Jan: comp.windows.x FAQ 1990: Jan: X v11r4 1990: May: Hertzfeld and Atkinson found General Magic [profile] 1990: 22May: Windows 3.0, supports 386 [cite] 1990: Smalltalk redesigned to run under other window-managers (ObjectWorks) [cite] 1990: Don Libes builds Expect in 3 wks using Tcl [cite] Xt toolkit? 1990: OSF (Open Software Foundation) creates Motif 1990: Carmack explores EGA's limits [history] 1990: Nov: UltraWin text-windowing library for DOS Pascal [GooJa] 1st mention of Borland's TurboVision? [GooJa] 1990: Nov: window-managers for dumb terminals include SCO MultiView and Facet/Term [thread] 1991: Be, Inc [pix] 1991: 13Mar: 1st release of Tk [GooJa] 1991: Carmack's Hovertank [history] 1991: 30Jun: end of Project Athena at MIT [cite] 1991: Aug: X v11r5 1992: 25Feb: Authorware and MacroMind-Paracomp merge to form Macromedia [cite] 1992: Mar? Orest Zborowski [GooJa] [more] adopts Linux for X386 (later XFree86) [alt.os.linux] [history] 1992: Apr: Linux 0.96 can run X-Windows 1992: May: Wolfenstein 3D [history] 1992: Jun: Claude Lecommandeur's ctwm [info] [site] [GooJa profile] 1992: Qt project begun in C++ (GUI toolkit, pronounced 'cute') [cite] 1993: XFree86 released 1992: Sep: text-windowing options for DOS include CXL, Windows BOSS, and Borland Application Frameworks [thread] [source] 1993: Jan: Jonathan Gay starts FutureWave Software, writes SmartSketch with Robert Tatsumi [history] 1993: MS-DOS text-windowing experiment [info] another 'twin' [info] [SourceForge] 1993? CXL sold, expanded, renamed TCXL [annc] 1993: Adobe Acrobat 1993: Robert Nation's fvwm [info] [GooJa profile] 1993: summer: Rob Glaser electrified by Mosaic [cite] 1993: Oct: Novell gives Unix name-rights to X/Open [cite] 1993? X v11r6 1993: Dec? GNUstep project begins [GooJa] 1993: Dec: Doom, for VGA [history] 1994: Feb: Rob Glaser leaves MS and founds Progressive Networks [history] to use new media to promote politically progressive content 1994: Adobe buys Aldus 1994: IDG publishes Unix-Haters Handbook [extracts] [toc] [review] [crit] 1994: May: Ousterhout moves to Sun [cite] "to evolve Tcl into a universal scripting language for the Internet" 1994: 22Jul: Landay and Myers' SILK tool for sketching uifs [paper] 1994: summer: NeXT publishes OpenStep specs [cite] 1994: Trolltech founded [cite] by Eirik Eng? 1994: Jim Fulton: X font service protocol 1994? Director 3.0 goes crossplatform, requires much rewriting [cite] 1994: Oct: Doom II [history] 1995: Apr: Progressive streams RealAudio at 14.4k [cite] 1995: CDE innovates 'frontpanel' (dock) [info] [more] 1995: May: 1st commercial release of Qt [cite] [intro] [multi] [tutorial] menus, context menus, dockable toolbars, balloon help, drag and drop 3.0 widgets: QButtonGroup, QCanvas, QCheckBox, QComboBox, QDateTimeEdit, QDial, QFileDialog, QGLWidget, QGrid, QGridLayout, QGroupBox, QHBox, QHBoxLayout, QIconView, QLabel, QLCDNumber, QLineEdit, QListBox, QListView, QMenuBar, QMessageBox, QProgressBar, QPushButton, QRadioButton, QRegExp, QScrollBar, QScrollView, QSlider, QSpinBox, QSplitter, QStatusBar, QTabDialog, QTable, QTextEdit, QToolBar, QValidator, QWizard [cite] 1995: summer: FutureWave begins adding animation to SmartSketch (becomes FutureSplash Animator) [history] [screenshots] 1995: autumn? Netscape promotes API for plugins 1995? Macromedia rebrands Director player as 'Shockwave'? [cite] 1995: 30Oct: Macromedia demos Shockwave plugin [annc] released Dec [post] 1995: Dec: Progressive begins turning FreeVu into RealVideo [cite] 1996: KDE project started by Matthias Etrich (mostly Europe-based) [docs] 1996: May: FutureWave ships FutureSplash Animator (will become Flash) [history] 1996: Jun: Quake [history] 1996: Aug: Rob Burgess reorients Macromedia to Web [cite] [more] 1996: Aug: Microsoft adopts FutureSplash for MSN site-debut [history] 1996: 01Nov: Linux Journal overview of Qt [etext] 1996: Dec: Macromedia buys FutureWave, adds interaction and scripting to FutureSplash and renames it 'Flash' [history] $250 1997: Feb: Progressive debuts RealVideo [cite-popups] 1997: Stallman objects to KDE's use of Qt [history] 1997: Miguel de Icaza starts GNOME project (GNU Network Object Model Environment) [cite] GTK KDE vs GNOME no-date: Macromedia Director generates '.DCR' Shockwave files [cite-popups] [info] 1997: May: confusing Macromedia comments about Shockwave vs Flash [post] 1998: Jan: Ousterhout leaves Sun and starts Scriptics [cite] name changed to Ajuba, sold to Interwoven 1998: 13Apr: Macromedia publishes specs for Shockwave Flash (SWF) [Cnet] [intro] Flash is higher res, Shockwave adds audio? [passim] 1998: Apr: macromedia.director newsgroups and macromedia.flash newsgroup 1998: Nov: TrollTech creates non-profit KDE Free Qt Foundation to manage Qt licensing [cite] Qt Public License 1999: Dec: Quake III [history] 2000: 17Mar: PicoGUI project started by Micah Dowty [FAQ] 2000: Sep: TrollTech gpls Qt [annc] 2002: 28Jun: OpenGL 2.0 [Slashdot thread] 2002: Remote Java Foundation Classes [long paper] 2002: Jef Raskin launches 'Humane Environment' open source project [info] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- downloads webtool reviews -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Suggestions You can submit a new URL or any other suggestion for this page by typing it into the box below. It will instantly become visible to anyone at this comments page. I should get around to checking it out and updating it above within a week or three, at which point I'll delete it from the comments page. 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